Transdisciplinary Responses to Climate Change: Institutionalizing Agrometeorological Learning Through Science Field Shops in Indonesia

Yunita Triwardani Winarto, Cornelis Johan (Kees) Stigter, Muki Trenggono Wicaksono


Science Field Shops (SFSs) are an example of a transdisciplinary educational commitment where farmers, scientists, and extension staff exchange knowledge on agrometeorology in dialogue form to better respond to climate change. How can scientists, farmers, and extension staff build up this transdisciplinary collaboration? How has the agrometeorological learning environment been institutionalized in several places in Indonesia? An interdisciplinary collaboration between agrometeorology and anthropology serves as basis for developing seven climate services that are provided in the SFSs. Through Knowledge Transfer and Communication Technologies, farmers have become active learners, researchers, and decision makers of their own responses to the consequences of climate change. Although such an approach proves efficient in improving the farmers’ knowledge and anticipation capability, the transdisciplinary collaboration with state authority needs to be overhauled to improve the process.


Argometeorology; Climate Change; Indonesia; Science Field Shops; Transdisciplinary Educational Commitment

Full Text:



Albright, E. A., & Crow, D. A. (2015). Learning processes, public and stakeholder engagement: Analyzing responses to Colorado’s extreme flood events of 2013. Urban Climate, 14(1), 79-93.

Aldrian, E., & Djamil, Y. S. (2008). Spatio-temporal climatic change of rainfall in East Java Indonesia. International Journal of Climatology, 28, 435-448.

Anantasari, E., Winarto, Y. T., & Stigter, K. (2011). Climate Field School: Learning and understanding some scientific knowledge of climate. In Y. T. Winarto & K. Stigter (Eds.), Agrometeorological learning: Coping better with climate change (pp. 44-85). Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Boer, R., & Suharnoto Y. (2012) Climate change and its impact on Indonesia’s food crop sector. Paper presented at the Sixth Executive Forum on Natural Resource Management: Water & Food in a Changing Environment on 11-13 April, Los Baños, Philippines.

Bortrell, D. G., & Schoenly, K. G. (2012). Resurrecting the ghost of green revolution past: The brown planthopper as a recurring threat to high-yielding rice production in tropical Asia. Journal of Asia-Pacific

Entomology, 15(1), 122-140.

Brutschin, J., & Wiesmann, U. (2002). Transdisciplinary research in development cooperation: Origins and paradigms. Unity of knowledge (in transdisciplinary research sustainability, vol. 1). Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). Retrieved from


Case, M., Ardiansyah, F., & Spector, E. (2007). Climate change in Indonesia: Implications for humans and nature. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved from

Cahyono, E. D. (2014). Challenges facing extension agents in implementing the participatory extension approach in Indonesia: A case study of Malang Regency in the East Java Region. Retrieved from!etd.send_file?accession=osu1404402942&disposition=attachment

Chambers, R., Pacey, A., & Thrupp, L. A. (1989). Farmer first: Farmer innovation and agricultural research. London: Intermediate Technology Publication.

Chambers, R. (2009). Foreword. In I. Scoones & J. Thompson (Eds.), Farmer first revisited: Innovation for agricultural research and development (pp. xix-xxx). Rugby: Practical Action Publishing.

Christinck, A., & Padmanabhan, M. (Eds.). (2013). Cultivate diversity! A handbook on transdisciplinary approaches to agrobiodiversity research. Weikersheim: Margraf Publishers.

Conway, G. R. (1985). Agroecosystem analysis. Agricultural Administration, 20, 31-55.

Conway, G. R., & Pretty, J. N. (1990). Unwelcome harvest: Agricultural pollution. London: Earthscan Publications.

Cronin, K. (2008). Transdisciplinary research (TDR) and sustainability. Overview report prepared for the Ministry of Research, Science and Technology (MoRST), New Zealand.

Departemen Proteksi Tanaman, Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor. (2014). Jawa krisis pangan jika kita tidak mampu mengelola serangan wereng secara benar (Java experiences food crises if we cannot control brown planthopper appropriately) [Press Release]. Bogor: Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Dilts, R., & Hate, S. (1996). IPM Farmers’ Field Schools: Changing paradigms and scaling-up. Agricultural Research & Extension Network, 59b, 1-4.

Fox, J. J. (1991). Managing the ecology of rice production in Indonesia. In J. Hardjono (Ed.), Indonesia: Resources, ecology, and environment (pp. 63-84). Singapore: Oxford University Press.

Fox, J. J. (2014, March 4). Fast breeding insect devastates Java’s rice. East Asia Forum. Retrieved from

Freire, P. (1972). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin Education.

Giller, O. (2013). Science Field Shops: The first step in creating an improved extension service in Indonesia, centred around agrometeorological learning. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Hansen, G. E. (1978). Bureaucratic linkages and policy-making in Indonesia: BIMAS revisited. In K. W. Jackson & L. W. Pye (Eds.), Political power and communication in Indonesia (pp. 322-342). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hardjono, J. (1983). Rural development in Indonesia: The “top-down” approach. In D. A. M. Leam & D. P. Chaudhri (Eds.), Rural development and the state (pp. 38-65). London: Methuen.

Jakku, E., & Thorburn, P. J. (2010). A conceptual framework for guiding the participatory development of agricultural decision support systems. Agriculture Systems, 103, 675-682.

Kenmore, P. E. (1992). Indonesia’s IPM – a model for Asia. In Intercountry programme for the development of integrated pest control in rice in South and Southeast Asia. Phase III. FAO.

Knowles, M. S. (1973). The adult learner: A neglected species. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.

Knowles, M. S., & Associates (1985). Andragogy in action: Applying modern principles of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Lang, D. J., Wiek, A., Bergmann, M., Stauffacher, M., Martens, P., Mull, P., . . . Thomas, C. J. (2012). Transdisciplinary research in sustainability science. Practice, principles, and challenges. Sustainability Science, 7(Supplement 1), 25-43.

Lassiter, L. E. (2005). Collaborative ethnography and public anthropology. Current Anthropology, 46(1), 83-106.

Lassiter, L. E. (2008). Moving past public anthropology and doing collaborative anthropology. NAPA Bulletin, 29, 70-86.

Lubis, D. P. (2013). Agricultural extension in Indonesia: Current status and possible ways to meeting emerging challenges. Bogor: Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). Retrieved from

Luks, F., & Siebenhüner, B. (2007). Transdisciplinarity for social learning? The contribution of the German socio-ecological research initiative to sustainability governance. Ecological Economics, 63, 418-426.

Luyet, V., Schlaepfer, R., Parlange, M. B., & Buttler, A. (2012). A framework to implement stakeholder participation in environmental projects. Journal of Environmental Management, 111, 213-219.

Marjuki, van der Schrier, G., Klein Tank, A. M. G., van den Besselaar, E. J. M., Nurhayati, & Swarinoto, Y. S. (2014). Observed climatic trends and variability relevant for crop yields in Southeast Asia. In Past, present and future: A display of climate science and services in South East Asia. Workshop proceedings of the International ASEAN SACA&D Conference and Workshop 2014 (pp. 22-23). Retrieved from

Pohl, C., & Hadorn, G. H. (2008). Methodological challenges of transdisciplinary research. Natures Sciences Societies, 16, 111-121.

Pontius, J., Dilts, R., & Bartlett, A. (2002). From Farmer Field School to Community IPM: Ten years of IPM training in Asia. Bangkok: FAO Community IPM Programme.

Prahara, H., Winarto, Y. T., & Kristiyanto (2011). The joint production of knowledge: Its dynamics. In Y. T. Winarto & K. Stigter (Eds.), Agrometeorological learning: Coping better with climate change (pp. 145-180). Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Scoones, I., & Thompson, J. (2009). Farmer first revisited: Innovation for agricultural research and development. In I. Scoones & J. Thompson (Eds.) Farmer first revisited: Innovation for agricultural research and development (pp. 3-30). Rugby: Practical Action Publishing.

Schiller, B. L. M. (1980). The green revolution in Java: Ecological, socio-economic and historical perspectives. Prisma, 18, 71-93.

Siregar, R. P., & Crane, T. A. (2011). Climate information and agricultural practice in adaptation to climate variability: The case of Climate Field Schools in Indramayu, Indonesia. Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment, 33(2), 55-69.

Stigter, K. (2016a). Improve training tools for extension agents. In S. Simone, F. Rossi, & S. David (Eds.), Supporting agricultural extension towards Climate-Smart Agriculture: An overview of existing tools (pp. 80-83). Rome: Global Alliance for Climate Smart Agriculture.

Stigter, K. (2016b). Farmers, agrometeorological learning, response farming, knowledge co-production and extension in Indonesia. INSAM (The International Society for Agricultural Meteorology), May 2016. Retrieved from

Stigter, K., & Winarto, Y. T. (2013). Rice and climate change: Adaptation or mitigation? Facts for policy designs. A choice from what recent summaries say and some critical additions for use with Indonesian farmers. In H. Soeparno, E. Pasandaran, M. Syarwani, A. Dariah, S. M. Pasaribu, & N. S. Saad (Eds.), Politik pembangunan pertanian menghadapi perubahan iklim [Politics of agricultural development facing climate change] (pp. 474-485). Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pembangunan Pertanian, Kementerian


Stigter, K., & Winarto. Y. T. (2016). Science Field Shops approach. In S. Simone, F. Rozze, & S. David (Eds.), Supporting agricultural extension towards Climate-Smart Agriculture: An overview of existing tools (pp. 22-24). Rome: Global Alliance for Climate Smart Agriculture.

Stigter, K., Winarto, Y. T., & Wicaksono, M. T. (2016). Science Field Shops: An innovative agricultural extension approach for adaptation to climate change, applied with farmers in Indonesia. In W. L. Filho,

K. Adamson, & R. Dunk (Eds.), Implementing climate change adaptation in communities, cities, countries and via outreach programmes (pp. 391-405). Springer: Heidelberg.

Sumberg, J., Thompson, J., & Woodhouse, P. (2013). Why agronomy in the developing world has become contentious. Agriculture and Human Values, 30(1), 71-83.

Thornton, P., & Cramer, L. (Eds.). (2012). Impacts of climate change on the agricultural and aquatic systems and natural resources within the CGIAR’s mandate. CCAFS Working Paper 23. Copenhagen: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

Wardhana, M. A. (1992). Developments in IPM: The Indonesian case. In P. A. C. Ooi, G. S. Lim, T. H. Ho, P. L. Manalo, & J. Waage (Eds.), Integrated pest management in the Asia-Pacific Region (pp. 27-35). Manila: CAB International, Asian Development Bank.

Winarto, Y. T. (2004a). Seeds of knowledge. The beginning of integrated pest management in Java. New Haven: Yale Southeast Asia Studies.

Winarto, Y. T. (2004b). The evolutionary changes in rice-crop farming. Integrated Pest Management in Indonesia, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Southeast Asian Studies, 42(3), 241-272.

Winarto, Y. T. (2009). Putting farmer first in Indonesia. The case of Farmer Field Schools. In I. Scoones & J. Thompson (Eds.), Farmer first revisited. Innovation for agricultural research and development (pp. 215-218). Rugby: Practical Action Publishing.

Winarto, Y. T. (2011). The ecological implications of central versus local governance. The contest over integrated pest management in Indonesia. In M. R. Dove, P. E. Sajise, & A. A. Doolittle (Eds.), Beyond the sacred forest. Complicating conservation in Southeast Asia (pp. 276-301). Dunham: Duke University Press.

Winarto, Y. T. (2013). ‘Memanusiakan manusia’ dalam lingkungan yang tangguh. Mengapa ‘jauh panggang dari api’? (‘Humanizing people’ in sustainable environment. Why ‘is the grill far away from the fire’?) Antropologi Indonesia, 34(1), 75-89.

Winarto, Y. T., & Stigter, K. (Eds.). (2011). Agrometeorological learning. Coping better with climate change. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Winarto, Y. T., & Stigter, K. (2013). Science Field Shops to reduce climate vulnerabilities. An inter- and trans-disciplinary educational commitment. Collaborative Anthropologies, 6, 419-441.

Winarto, Y. T., & Stigter, K. (2016). Incremental learning and gradual changes: “Science Field Shops” as an educational approach in coping better with climate change. In L. Wilson, & C. Stevenson (Eds.), Promoting climate change awareness through environmental education (pp. 60-95). Hersley: IGI Global.

Winarto, Y. T., Stigter, K., Ariefiansyah, R., & Prihandiani, A. F. (2016, July). Agrometeorological learning as policy learning in a changing climate. Would the state change its policies if the farmers change their strategies? Paper presented at the 6th International Symposium of Journal Antropologi Indonesia, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Indonesia.

Winarto, Y. T., Fox, J. J., Stigter, K., Bowolaksono, A., Dwisatrio, B., Nurhaga, M., & Kinanti, V. (2012a). Adaptation options of farmers to a changing climate in a vulnerable ecosystem. Final report of international research collaboration submitted to Directorate of Research and Community Development, Universitas

Indonesia, Depok.

Winarto, Y. T., Fox, J. J., Nurhaga, M., Avessina, J., Kinanti, N., & Dwisatrio, B. (2012b). Brownplanthopper in Klaten-Boyolali-Sukoharjo, Central Java. Retrieved from

Winarto, Y. T., Stigter, K., & Ariefiansyah, R. (2015, December). Interpreting the present, anticipating the future. Continuous learning in ongoing climate change. Paper presented in the Australian Research Council workshop on “Environmental Education in Indonesia”, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Indonesia.

Winarto, Y. T., Stigter, K., Dwisatrio, B., Nurhaga, M., & Bowolaksono, A. (2013). Agrometeorological learning increasing farmers’ knowledge in coping with climate change and unusual risks. Southeast Asian Studies, 2(2), 323-349.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

License URL:

This website is part of