Palm Oil as a Transnational Crisis in South-East Asia

Oliver Pye

Abstract


This paper discusses the recent palm oil expansion as a multiple crisis of climate change, biodiversity loss, and (failed) development. It draws on recent research on the Malaysian “Palm Oil Industrial Complex” and on transnational campaign coalitions around palm oil to explore the transnational dimensions of the palm oil crisis. It argues that a new campaign coalition around the issue of agrofuel policies in the European Union has emerged that links social and environmental struggles in Indonesia and Europe. This new transnational activism not only rejects the palm oil development paradigm, but also points to possible alternative development futures.

Keywords


Palm Oil, Climate Change, Agrofuels, Transnational Activism, Indonesia & Malaysia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aditjondro, G. J. (2001). Suharto’s Fires. Suhartos Cronies Control an ASEAN-wide Palm Oil Industry with an Appalling Environmental Record. Inside Indonesia, 65. Retrieved 21 April, 2009, from http://insideindonesia.org/content/view/492/29/

Basch, L., Szanton Blanc, C., & Glick Schiller, N. (1994).Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and Deterritorialized Nation-States. Amsterdam: OPA.

Basiron, Y. (2008a). Renewable Fuels in Emerging Markets: Gearing Global Biodiesel Production Through Malaysian Palm Oil. Retrieved 21 July, 2008, from http://www.mpoc.org.my/download/tsywirec.pdf

Basiron, Y. (2008b). The Way Forward Towards Branded Malaysian Palm Oil. Paper delivered at the “International Palm Oil Sustainability Conference”, 13-15 April, 2008, Sutera Harbour Resort, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

Biofuels Research Advisory Council. (2006). Biofuels in the European Union. A Vision for 2030 and Beyond. Retrieved 15 April, 2009, from http://food.gate2finance.com/sites/food.gate2finance.com/files/Biofuels_in_EU,_vision_2030.pdf

Buckland, H. (2005). The Oil for Ape Scandal. How Palm Oil is threatening Orang-Utan Survival. London: Friends of the Earth.

Brunnengräber, A. (2009). Prima Klima mit dem Markt? Der Handel mit dem Recht, die Luft zu verschmutzen. PROKLA, 156, 407-424.

Casson, A. (2000). The Hesitant Boom: Indonesia’s oil palm sub-sector in an era of economic crisis and political change. CIFOR Occasional Paper Nr. 29. Bogor, Indonesia.

Castles, S. (2004). The myth of the controllability of difference. Labour migration, transnational communities and state strategies in the Asia-Pacific region. In B. S. A. Yeoh & K. Willis (Eds.), Perspectives on Transnationalism in the Asia-Pacific (pp. 16-36). London: Routledge.

Corporate Europe Observatory. (2007). The EU’s agrofuel folly: policy capture by corporate interests. Briefing Paper. Retrieved 22 September, 2008, from http://www.corporateeurope.org/agrofuelfolly.html#appendix

Colchester, M. & Jiwan, N. (2006). Ghosts on our Own Land: Indonesian Oil Palm Smallholders and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil. Bogor, Indonesia: Forest Peoples Programme & Perkumpulan Sawit Watch.

Colchester, M., Jiwan, N., Andiko, Sirait, M., Firdaus, A. Y,, Surambo, A., et al. (2006). Promised Land: Palm Oil and Land Acquisition in Indonesia - Implications for Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples. [Monograph]. Retrieved 27 July, 2008, from http://www.forestpeoples.org/documents/prv_sector/oil_palm/promised_land_eng.pdf

Danielsen, F. & Heegaard, M. (1995). Impact of Logging and Plantation Development on Species Diversity: A Case Study from Sumatra. In O. Sandbukt (Ed.), Management of tropical forests: towards an integrated perspective (pp. 73-92). Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo.

Danielson, F., Hendrien, B., Burgess, N. D., Parish, F., Brühl, C. A., Donald, P. F., et al. (2008). Plantations on Forested Lands: Double Jeopardy for Biodiversity and Climate. Conservation Biology, 23(2), 348-358.

Daud, A. (2006). Labour Constraints in the Plantation Industry. Oil Palm Industry Economic Journal, 6(2), 37-48.

Eisenhower, D. (1961). Farewell Radio and Television Address to the American People, 17 January 1961. The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 4 December, 2009, from http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=12086&st=military-industrial+complex&st1=

Exonexus. (2007). Call for an immediate moratorium on EU incentives for agrofuels, EU imports of agrofuels and EU agroenergy monocultures. Retrieved 19 February, 2009, from http://www.econexus.info/pdf/agrofuels_moratorium.pdf

European Parliament. (2008). Standpunkt des Europäischen Parlaments festgelegt in erster Lesung am 17. Dezember 2008 im Hinblick auf den Erlass der Richtlinie 2009/.../EG des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates zur Förderung der Nutzung von Energie aus erneuerbaren Quellen. Retrieved 5 February, 2009, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2008-0609+0+DOC+XML+V0//DE&language=DE#top

Friends of the Earth. (2008). Malaysian palm oil - green gold or green wash? A commentary on the sustainability claims of Malaysia’s palm oil lobby, with a special focus on the state of Sarawak [Monograph]. Retrieved 15 June, 2009, from http://www.foei.org/en/publications/pdfs/malaysian-palm-oil

Ginting, L. (2005). Indonesia: IMF and Deforestation. WRM Bulletin, 95.

Goossens, B., Chikhi, L., Ancrenaz, M., Lackman-Ancrenaz, I., Andau, P., & Bruford, M. W. (2006). Genetic signature of anthropogenic population collapse in orang-utans [Electronic Version], PLoS Biol 4(2), 0285-0291.

Görg, C. (1999). Gesellschaftliche Naturverhältnisse. Münster, Germany: Westfälisches Dampfboot.

Greenpeace. (2007). How the Palmoil Industry is Cooking the Climate [Monograph]. Retrieved 9 November, 2007, from http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/cooking-the-climate-

full.pdf

Greenpeace & European Renewable Energy Council. (2007). Energy (R)evolution. A Sustainable World Energy Outlook [Monograph]. Retrieved 15 June, 2009, from http://www.greenpeace.de/fileadmin/gpd/user_upload/themen/energie/energyrevolutionreport_engl.pdf

Hirsch, J. (1995). Der nationale Wettbewerbsstaat: Staat, Demokratie und Politik im globalen Kapitalismus. Berlin: Editon ID-Archiv.

Hooijer, A., Silvius, M., Wösten, H., & Page, S. (2006). PEAT-CO2, Assessment of CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in SE Asia.

Delft Hydraulics report Q3943.

International Declaration Against the ‘Greenwashing’ of Palm Oil by the Roundtable on Sustainable

Palm Oil (RSPO). (2008). Retrieved 6 February, 2009, from http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/docs/15-10-

-RSPO-Ingles.pdf

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007).

Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report

[Monograph].

Retrieved 18 March, 2009, from http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf

Lohmann, L. (2006). Carbon Trading. A Critical Conversation on Climate Change, Privatisation and Power [Electronic Version].

Development Dialogue, 48, 1-362.

Malaysian Palm Oil Association. (2005). Foreign Workers in the Plantation Sector: Issues and Prospects. In Malaysian Palm Oil Association (2005). Annual Report 2004, 16-17, Retrieved 27 February, 2008, from http://www.mpoa.org.my/pdf/ar2004.pdf

Malaysian Palm Oil Board. (n.d.). MPOB ... the Steward of Malaysian Palm Oil Industry. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Malaysian Palm Oil Council. (2007). Annual Report 2006. Retrieved 20 July, 2008, from http://www.mpoc.org.my/mktstat_annualreport_2006.asp

Marti, S. (2008). Losing Ground. The human rights impacts of palm oil expansion plantation in Indonesia. London, Edinburgh, UK, & Bogor, Indonesia: Friends of the Earth, LifeMosaic, & Sawit Watch.

Mazure, L. (2009, May 8). Die grünen Hunde (Uta Rüenauver, Trans.). Le Monde diplomatique, 8879, 4-5.

Milieudefensie, Lembaga Gemawan, & KONTAK Rakyat Borneo. (2007). Policy, practice, pride and prejudice. Review of legal, environmental and social practices of oil palm plantation companies of the Wilmar Group in Sambas District, West Kalimantan (Indonesia) [Monograph]. Retrieved 27 July, 2008, from http://www.milieudefensie.nl/globalisering/publicaties/rapporten/policy-practice-pride-and-prejudice.pdf

Mitchell, D. (2008). A Note on Rising Food Prices. Policy Research Working Paper 4682. New York: The World Bank.

Nellemann, C., Miles, L., Kaltenborn, B. P., Virtue, M., & Ahlenius, H. (2007). The Last Stand of the Orangutan. State of Emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire and Palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks [Monograph]. Retrieved 4 November, 2007, from http://www.unep-wcmc.org/resources/PDFs/LastStand/full_orangutanreport.pdf

Oh, E. (2009). Failure to counter new anti-palm oil tactics will be costly to Malaysia. StarBiz. Retrieved 15 September, 2009, from http://www.palmoilhq.com/PalmOilNews/failure-to-counter-new-anti-palm-oil-tactics-will-be-costly-to-malaysia/

Orth, M. (2007). Subsistence Foods to Export Goods. The impact of an oil palm plantation on local food sovereignty. North Barito, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia [Monograph]. Retrieved 19 June, 2008, from http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/docs/foodsovereigntyindonesia.pdf

Paramananthan, S. (2008). Tropical Lowland Peats: To Conserve or Develop Them? Paper delivered at the “International Palm Oil Sustainability Conference”, 13-15 April 2008, Sutera Harbour Resort, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

Pries, L. (2001). The approach of transnational social spaces: responding to new configurations of the social and the spatial. In L. Pries (Ed.), New Transnational Social Spaces (pp. 3-33). London: Routledge.

Pries, L. (2008). Die Transnationalisierung der sozialen Welt. Frankfurt a. M, Germany: edition suhrkamp.

Quadri, S. T. (2001). Fire, Smoke and Haze. The ASEAN Response Strategy. Manila, The Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

Scheer, H. (2006, June). The Post-Fossil Future. Le Monde diplomatique, June 2006. Retrieved 3 December, 2009, from http://www.hermannscheer.de/en/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=133

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. (2006)

Global Biodiversity Outlook 2 [Electronic Version]. Montreal, Canada.

Sime Darby Plantation. (2008). Dawn of a New Era [Electronic Version]. Seedlink, 1, 6, 3.

Smith, J. (1997). Characteristics of the Modern Transnational Social Movement Sector. In J. Smith, C. Chatfield, & R. Pagnucco (Eds.), Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics. Solidarity Beyond the State (pp. 42-58). Syracuse, USA: Syracuse University Press.

Serikat Petani Kelapa Sawit. (2006). Declaration of Serikat Petani Kelapa Sawit, Sanggau District, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Wisma Tabor, Pusat Damai, 9 June 2006. In M. Colchester & N. Jiwan (Eds.), Ghosts on our Own Land: Indonesian Oil Palm Smallholders and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil ( pp. 16-17). Bogor, Indonesia: Forest Peoples Programme & Perkumpulan Sawit Watch.

Sodhi, N. S. & Brook, B. W. (2006). Southeast Asian Biodiversity in Crisis. (Cambridge Tropical Biology Series 5). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Teoh, C. H. (2002). The Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia. From Seed to Frying Pan [Monograph]. Retrieved 27 July, 2008, from http://www.rspo.org/resource_centre/OP_Chain_Part%20A_new.pdf

Vertovec, S. (1999). Conceiving and researching transnationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(2), 448-462.

Wakker, E. (2005). Greasy Palms. The social and ecological impacts of large-scale palm oil plantation development in Southeast Asia [Monograph]. Retrieved 18 June, 2007, from http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/reports/greasy_palms_impacts.pdf

Wilcove, D. S. (2008). Biodiversity and Oil Palm: Understanding the Conflicts and Finding Opportunities for Cooperation. Paper delivered at the “International Palm Oil Sustainability Conference”, 13-15 April 2008, Sutera Harbour Resort, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

Wilmar International Limited. (2008). Asia and Beyond. A Leading Agribusiness Group. Wilmar Annual Report 2007. Retrieved 2 June, 2008, from http://www.wilmar-international.com/investor/2007%20-%20AR.pdf


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/