Livelihood and Poverty: The Case of Poor Women in the Rural Areas of Ca Mau Province, Vietnam
Keywords:livelihood, poverty, rural development policy, Vietnam, women
Poverty in rural areas remains a major concern for developing countries. In order to improve the lives of poor rural people, it is important to identify the key factors behind their poverty. Over the past two decades, rural development policy and research have focused on livelihood perspectives that help to explain intertwining factors affecting the way rural residents make a living. Yet, critics point out that the livelihood perspective focuses heavily on the livelihoods of households at the micro level and does not recognize the impact of wider socioeconomic contexts in the lives of rural people. The livelihood literature also gives little attention to power relationships, particularly gender issues. This paper seeks to address these knowledge gaps by investigating the livelihoods of poor women in Ca Mau province, a coastal region of Vietnam. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative research methods with questionnaire surveys, in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Research findings show that women in the area possess poor livelihood capitals, particularly in human capacity and financial capacity. Moreover, some rural development policies are still not accessible, and they do not provide sufficient inputs for farming. The findings presented here uncover the deep interlinkages between livelihood capitals and the impact of the wider socioeconomic contexts on household livelihood activities and outcomes.
Batterbury, S. (2007). Sustainable livelihoods: Still being sought, ten years on. Environmental Studies. University of Melbourne and James Martin Fellow.
Baumann, P. (2006). Forest-poverty linkages in West and Central Asia. The outlook from a sustainable livelihoods perspective. FAO.
Bui, T. M. H., & Schreinemachers, P. (2011). Resettling farm households in northwestern Vietnam: livelihood change and adaptation. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 27(4), 769-785.
Chambers, R., & Conway, G. R. (1992). Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21st century. Institute of Development Studies Discussion, 296, 1-42. Brighton, Sussex.
Chinh phu Viet Nam. [The Government of Vietnam]. (2015). Quyet dinh so: 59/2015/qđ-ttg cua Thu tuong Chinh phu ve viec ban hanh chuan ngheo tiep can da chieu ap dung cho giai doan 2016 – 2020 [Decision No. 59/2015/qđ-ttg of the Prime Minister on promulgating multidimensional poverty standards applicable to the period 2016-2020]. Hanoi.
Dang Kim Oanh. (2010, June 08). Ca Mau chuyen dich co cau kinh te nong nghiep theo huong cong nghiep hoa [Ca Mau shifted agricultural economic structure towards industrialization]. Tap chi Cong San Online [Communist Magazine Online]. http://tapchicongsan.org.vn/web/guest/nghien-cu/-/2018/647/ca-mauchuyen-
De Haan, L. J. (2012). The livelihood approach: A critical exploration. Erdkunde, 345-357.
Dorward, A., Poole, N., Morrison, J., Kydd, J., & Urey, I. (2003). Markets, institutions and technology: Missing links in livelihoods analysis. Development Policy Review, 21(3), 319-332.
Duy Anh. (2018, December 20). Huyen Dam Dơi - Cà Mau: Uu tien thu hut dau tu vao linh vuc kinh te the manh [Dam Doi district - Ca Mau: Prioritize to attract investment in strong economic fields]. Vietnam Business Forum. http://vccinews.vn/news/21389/huyen-dam-doi-ca-mau-uu-tien-thu-hut-dau-tu-vaolinh-vuc-kinh-te-the-manh.html
Ellis, F. (2000). Rural livelihoods and diversity in development countries. Oxford University Press.
Ellis, F., & Allison, E. (2004). Livelihood diversification and natural resource access. Overseas Development Group, University of East Anglia.
Erenstein, O. (2011). Livelihood assets as a multidimensional inverse proxy for poverty: a district-level analysis of the Indian Indo-Gangetic Plains. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 12(2), 283-302.
Fanga,Y., Fanb, J., Shenc, M., & Meng-qiang Songa, M. (2014). Sensitivity of livelihood strategy to livelihood capital in mountain areas: Empirical analysis based on different settlements in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River, China. Ecological Indicators, 38, 225-235.
Fletschner, D., & Kenney, L. (2014). Rural women’s access to financial services: Credit, savings, and insurance. In A. R. Quisumbing, R. Meinzen-Dick, T. L. Raney, A. Croppenstedt, J. A. Behrman, & A. Peterman (Eds.), Gender in agriculture: Closing the knowledge gap (pp. 187-208). Springer.
Flora, C. B. (2001). Access and control of resources: Lessons from the SANREM CRSP. Agriculture and Human Values, 18, 41-48.
Ghosh, S., Verma, H. C., Panda, D. K., Nanda, P., & Kumar, A. G. (2012). Irrigation, agriculture, livelihood and poverty linkages in Odisha. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 25, 99-105.
Ha, T. T. P., Van D. H., & Visser, L. (2014). Impacts of changes in mangrove forest management practices on forest accessibility and livelihood: A case study in mangrove-shrimp farming system in Ca Mau Province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Land Use Policy, 36, 89-101.
Ha, D. T., Phuoc, D., Hong, P., Thuy, N. N., Van Du, L., Hung, P. T., Espaldon, M. V. O., & Magsino, A. O. (2001). Impacts of changes in policy and market conditions on land use, land management and livelihood among farmers in central highlands of Vietnam. In A. G. Garcia (Ed.), Sustaining Natural Resources Management in Southeast Asia (pp. 41-68). SEAMEO Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture.
Hossain, M., Ut, T. T., & Bose, M. L. (2006). Livelihood systems and dynamics of poverty in a coastal province of Vietnam. In, Environment and Livelihoods in Tropical Coastal Zones: Managing Agriculture-Fishery-Aquaculture Conflicts (pp. 30-47). CAB International.
Huynh Anh. (2019, July 19). Bien đoi khi hau 'bua vay' vung ban dao Ca Mau - Bai 2: Xam nhap man den tu nhieu huong [Climate change 'besieged' Ca Mau peninsula - Lesson 2: Saline intrusion comes from many directions]. Cuc Quan ly tai nguyen nuoc, Bo Tai nguyen và Moi truong [Department of Water Resources Management, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment]. http://dwrm.gov.vn/index.php?language=vi&nv=news&op=Tai-nguyen-nuoc/Bien-doi-khi-hau-bua-vay-vung-ban-dao-Ca-Mau-Bai-2-Xam-nhap-man-den-tu-nhieu-huong-8296
Khatiwada, S. P., Deng, W., Paudel, B., Khatiwada, J. R., Jifei Zhang, J., & Yi Su, Y. (2017). Household livelihood strategies and implication for poverty reduction in rural areas of Central Nepal. Sustainability, 9(4), 612.
Khatiwada, S. P., Deng, W., Paudel, B., Khatiwada, J. R., Zhang, J., & Wan, J. (2018). A gender analysis of changing livelihood activities in the rural areas of central Nepal. Sustainability, 10(11), 4034.
Kibria, A. S., Costanza, R., Groves, C., & Behie, A. M. (2018). The interactions between livelihood capitals and access of local communities to the forest provisioning services of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh. Ecosystem Services, 32, 41-49.
Kristjanson, P., Radeny, M., Baltenweck, I., Ogutu, J., & Notenbaert, A. (2005). Livelihood mapping and poverty correlates at a meso-level in Kenya. Food Policy, 30(5-6), 568-583.
Lawal, J. O., Omonona, B. T, & Oyinleye, O. D. (2011). Effects of livelihood assets on poverty status of farming households in Southwestern Nigeria. Paper prepared for presentation at the EAAE 2011 Congress Change and Uncertainty: Challenges for Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, 30 August-2 September, 2011, ETH Zurich, Zurich.
Le Anh. (2017, January 31). Ca Mau: Day manh phat trien nong nghiep cong nghe cao [Ca Mau: Promote the development of high-tech agriculture]. VGP News. http://baochinhphu.vn/kinh-te/ca-mau-daymanh-phat-trien-nong-nghiep-cong-nghe-cao/297732.vgp
Loan Phuong. (2020, July 6). Ca Mau: Nong dan Dam Doi thu nghiem nuoi tom cong nghiep trai bat [Ca Mau, Dam Doi farmers experiment with industrial shrimp farming]. https://thuysanvietnam.com.vn/ca-mau-nong-dan-dam-doi-thu-nghiem-nuoi-tom-cong-nghiep-trai-bat/
Lovell, R. J., Shennan, C., & Thuy, N. N. (2020). Sustainable and conventional intensification: how gendered livelihoods influence farming practice adoption in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23, 7089-7116.
Luttrell, C., (2001). An institutional approach to livelihood resilience in Vietnam. Ph.D. Thesis, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich.
Mdee, A. L. (2002). Sustainable livelihoods approaches: Can they transform development? BCID Research Paper No.2. Bradford Centre for International Development, University of Bradford.
Nguyen, M. T., & Locke, C. (2014). Rural-urban migration in Vietnam and China: gendered householding, production of space and the state. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 41(5), 855-876.
Nguyen Buu San. (2020, September 07). Nuoi tom quang canh cai tien 02 giai doan - mo hinh da duoc nhan rong hieu qua [Extensive shrimp farming improves 02 stages - the model has been effectively replicated]. Thuy san Viet Nam [Vietnam’s Aquaculture]. http://lienhiephoikhkt.camau.gov.vn/nuoi-tomquang-canh-cai-tien-02-giai-doan-mo-hinh-da-duoc-nhan-rong-hieu-qua.527
Nguyen Nhat, T. (1997). Women farmers and IPM farmer field schools in Vietnam. ILEIA Newsletter, 13(4), 20-21.
Okali, C. (2006). Linking livelihoods and gender analysis for achieving gender transformative change. FAO LSP Working Paper, 41. FAO.
Oumer, A. M., & de Neergaard, A. (2011). Understanding livelihood strategy-poverty links: empirical evidence from central highlands of Ethiopia. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 13(3), 547-564.
Peter, C. A. (1999). Sustainable livelihoods analysis: An introduction. Maxwell.
Radel, C. (2012). Gendered livelihoods and the politics of socio-environmental identity: women’s participation in conservation projects in Calakmul, Mexico. Gender, Place & Culture, 19(1), 61-82.
Ragasa, C. (2014). Improving gender responsiveness of agricultural extension. In A. R. Quisumbing, R. Meinzen-Dick, T. L. Raney, A. Croppenstedt, J. A. Behrman, & A. Peterman (Eds.), Gender in agriculture: Closing the knowledge gap (pp. 411-430). Springer.
Sadik, S., & Rahman, R. (2009, February). Indicator framework for assessing livelihood resilience to climate change for vulnerable communities dependent on Sundarban mangrove system. Paper presented at the 4th South Asia Water Research Conference on “Interfacing Poverty, Livelihood and Climate Change in Water Resources Development: Lessons in South Asia”, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Shah, H. (2005). Livelihood assets and livelihood strategies of small farmers in salt range: A case study of Pind Dadan Khan District Jhelum, Pakistan. Pakistan Joirnal of Agricultural Societies, 42(1-2), 82-88.
Sharifi, Z., & Nooripoor, M. (2017). Ranking rural livelihood capitals in the central district of Dena County: The application of analytic network process. International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development, 8, 137-147.
Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable livelihood: A framework for analysis. IDS.
Scoones, I. (2009). Livelihoods perspectives and rural development. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 36(1), 171-196.
Su, F., & Shang, H. Y. (2012). Relationship analysis between livelihood assets and livelihood strategies: A Heihe river basin example. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 4(3), 265-274.
Tan Tai. (2019, May 19). Huyen U Minh 40 nam hinh thanh va phat trien [U Minh district 40 years of establishment and development]. Retrieved from: Thanh nien Viet. http://thanhnienviet.vn/2019/05/19/huyen-u-minh-40-nam-hinh-thanh-va-phat-trien/
Thao, V. T. (2013). Making a living in rural Vietnam from (im) mobile livelihoods: A case of women's migration. Population, Space and Place, 19(1), 87-102.
Thulstrup, A. W. (2015). Livelihood resilience and adaptive capacity: Tracing changes in household access to capital in Central Vietnam. World Development, 74, 352-362.
Tong cuc Thong ke. (2018). So lieu thong ke 2018 [Statistics 2018]. Hanoi: Tong cuc Thong ke [General Statistics Office].
Tran Thanh Hai. (2019, Agust 21). Phat trien nuoi tom sieu tham canh thuc trang va tiem nang [Developing super-intensive shrimp farming with current status and potential]. Lien hiep cac hoi khoa hoc va ky thuat Ca Mau [Ca Mau Union of Science and Technology Associations]. http://lienhiephoikhkt.camau.gov.vn/phat-trien-nuoi-tom-sieu-tham-canh-thuc-trang-va-tiem-nang.439
Tuijnman, W., Bayrak, M. M., Hung, P. X., & Tinh, B. D. (2020). Payments for environmental services, gendered livelihoods and forest management in Vietnam: A feminist political ecology perspective. Journal of Political Ecology, 27(1), 317-334.
Van Mach, & Tran Truong. (2019, May 16). U Minh 40 nam xay dung va phat trien [U Minh 40 years of construction and development]. Trang thong tin Dien tu, Dang bo huyen U Minh [Website of the Party Committee of U Minh District]. http://uminh.camau.dcs.vn/u-minh-40-nam-xay-dung-va-phat-trien.427
Vietnam Association of Sea Food Exporter and Producers. (2019, April 18). Nuoi tom sieu tham canh o Ca Mau [Super-intensive shrimp farming in Ca Mau]. http://vasep.com.vn/Tin-Tuc/1202_55166/Nuoitom-sieu-tham-canh-o-Ca-Mau.htm
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Society for South-East Asian Studies (SEAS)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Articles published before December 2019 are licensed under the following Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported. Articles published after that date are licensed under the following Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International.