Entangled Enclaves: Dams, Volatile Rivers, and Chinese Infrastructural Engagement in Cambodia





Cambodia, dis/entanglement, global China, hydropower dams, infrastructure, Mekong


This article seeks to advance understanding of the changing interconnections between rivers, infrastructure, and power relations as well as how these are increasingly shaped by a globalizing China and climate change. To do so, it analyzes damming practices in Cambodia and their evolution under a post-neoliberal, concessionary governing mode that materializes in enclaves of corporate authority under Chinese state-owned enterprises. Drawing from the literature on the political life of Chinese overseas infrastructure projects, this article develops the idea of ambiguously entangled enclaves. The focus is on the four most recent large-scale dams in Cambodia and the kinds of dis/connections, altered hydrosocial relations, and power dynamics they generate. The article highlights patterns of dis/entanglement that illuminate the role of Chinese infrastructural engagement in shaping new political-ecological relations and socio-spatial formations in Cambodia and beyond. It also adds insights into the multidimensional geography of enclavism in the Mekong Region.

Author Biography

Mira Käkönen, University of Helsinki

Mira Käkönen is a lecturer in Global Development Studies at the University of Helsinki and, starting from 2024, an ARC DECRA fellow at the Australian National University. She has worked in various research projects on the politics of environment and development. Most of her work has focused on the political ecology of water, climate change, and infrastructure in the Mekong Region, Southeast Asia.


Asian Development Bank, [ADB] (2018). Cambodia: Energy sector assessment, strategy, and road map. http://dx.doi.org/10.22617/TCS189801

Anderson, B., Kearnes M., McFarlane, C., & Swanton, D. (2012). On assemblages and geography. Dialogues in Human Geography, 2(2), 171–189.

Appel, H. (2012). Walls and white elephants: Oil extraction, responsibility, and infrastructural violence in Equatorial Guinea. Ethnography, 13(4), 439–465.

Appel, H. (2019) The licit life of capitalism: US oil in Equatorial Guinea. Duke University Press.

Appel, H., Anand, N., & Gupta, A. (2018). Introduction: Temporality, politics, and the promise of infrastructure. In N. Anand, A. Gupta, & H. Appel (Eds.), The promise of infrastructure (pp. 1–38). Duke University Press.

Baird, I. (2016). Non-government organizations, villagers, political culture and the Lower Sesan 2 Dam in Northeastern Cambodia. Critical Asian Studies, 48(2), 257–77.

Baird, I., Shoemaker, B., & Manorom, K. (2015). The people and their river revisited: The World Bank, the Nam Theun 2, and the Xe Bang Fai River in Laos. Development and Change, 46(5), 1080–1105.

Baird, I., & Quastel, N. (2015). Rescaling and reordering nature-society relations: The Nam Theun 2 hydro-power dam and Laos-Thailand electricity networks. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105(6), 1221–1239.

Baird, I., & Green, W. (2020). The clean development mechanism and large dam development: Contradictions associated with climate financing in Cambodia. Climatic Change, 161, 365–383.

Bakker, K. (1999). The politics of hydropower: Developing the Mekong. Political Geography, 18(2), 209–232.

Barry, A. (2020). The material politics of infrastructure. In S. Maasen, S. Dickel & C. Schneider (Eds.), TechnoScienceSociety (pp. 91-109). Springer.

Beban, A. (2021). Unwritten rule: State-making through land reform in Cambodia. Cornell University Press.

Blake, D., & Barney, K. (2018). Structural injustice, slow violence? The political ecology of a “best practice” hydropower dam in Lao PDR. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 48(5), 808–834.

Byler, D. (2020). Infrastructural power, Hong Kong, and global China. China Made Brief # 6. https://chinamadeproject.net/china-made-brief-6/

Cartier, C. (2017). Zone analog: The state-market problematic and territorial economies in China. Critical Sociology, 44(3), 455–70.

Chheang, V. (2022). Chinese investments and resource frontiers in Cambodia: Systemic transformation. In O. Tappe & S. Rowedder (Eds.), Extracting development: Contested resource frontiers in mainland Southeast Asia (pp. 198–220). ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute.

Cambodia New Vision [CNV]. (2010, December 28). Selected Comments at the Groundbreaking of the Construction of Russei Jrum Hydropower. Cambodia New Vision, Cabinet of Prime Minister Hun Sen. http://en.cnv.org.kh/selected-comments-at-the-groundbreaking-of-the-construction-of-russei-jrum-hydropower-in-the-district-of-mondul-seima-koh-kong-province/

Cambodia New Vision [CNV]. (2011, December 7). Selected Comments during the Inauguration of the Komjai Hydropower Plant in the district of Toeuk Tchou, Kompot province. Cambodia New Vision, Cabinet of Prime Minister Hun Sen. http://en.cnv.org.kh/selected-comments-during-the-inauguration-of-the-komjai-hydropower-plant-in-the-district-of-toeuk-tchou-kompot-province/

Cambodia New Vision [CNV]. (2017, September 25). Selected Comments Samdech Techo Hun Sen at the Visit to the Se San II Hydropower to Shut Control Gate to Keep Water in Reservoir. Cambodia New Vision, Cabinet of Prime Minister Hun Sen. https://pressocm.gov.kh/en/archives/13472

Cambodia New Vision [CNV]. (2018, December 17) Selected Comments Samdech Techo Hun Sen, at the Inauguration of the 400 Megawatts Sesan Kraom II Hydropower Plant [Unofficial Translation]. Cambodia New Vision, Cabinet of Prime Minister Hun Sen. https://pressocm.gov.kh/en/archives/46137

Dahles, H., & Pheakdey, H. (2017). China’s strategic liaison with Cambodia: A beyond resource diplomacy. China’s World, 2(1), 52–68.

Davies, W., & Gane, N. (2021). Post-Neoliberalism? An introduction. Theory, Culture & Society, 38(6), 3–28.

DiCarlo, J. (2021). Grounding global China in northern Laos: The making of the infrastructure frontier. PhD dissertation, Department of Geography, University of Colorado Boulder.

Dreher, A., Fuchs, A., Parks, B.C., Strange, A. M., & Tierney, M. J. (2017) Aid, China, and growth: Evidence from a new global development finance dataset. AidData Working Paper #46.

Dwyer, M. (2020) “They will not automatically benefit”: The politics of infrastructure development in Laos's Northern Economic Corridor. Political Geography, 78, 102118.

Ear, S. (2013). Aid dependence in Cambodia: How foreign assistance undermines democracy. Columbia University Press.

Electricity Authority of Cambodia [EAC]. (2022). Report on power sector of the Kingdom of Cambodia for the year 2021. https://www.eac.gov.kh/site/annualreport?lang=en

Environmental Investigation Agency [EIA]. (2018). Serial offender: Vietnam’s continued imports of illegal Cambodian timber. Environmental Investigation Agency. https://reports.eia-international.org/serialoffender/

Fawthorp, T. (2022, December 28). Cambodia seeks UNESCO world heritage status to protect a Mekong biodiversity hotspot. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2022/12/cambodia-seeks-unesco-world-heritage-status-to-protect-a-mekong-biodiversity-hotspot/

Ferguson, J. (2006). Global shadows: Africa in the neoliberal world order. Duke University Press.

Flynn, G. (2023, May 26). Forest behind bars: Logging network operating out of Cambodian prison in the Cardamoms. Mongabay. https://news.mongabay.com/2023/05/forest-behind-bars-logging-network-operating-out-of-cambodian-prison-in-the-cardamoms/

Flynn, G., & Pry, N. (2022, September 15). Cambodian mega dam’s resurrection on the Mekong ‘the beginning of the end’. Mongabay. https://news.mongabay.com/2022/09/cambodian-mega-dams-resurrection-on-the-mekong-the-beginning-of-the-end/

Geheb, K., & Suhardiman, D. (2019). The political ecology of hydropower in the Mekong River Basin. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 37, 8-13.

Glassman, J. (2010). Bounding the Mekong: The Asian Development Bank, China and Thailand. University of Hawai’i Press.

Global Witness. 2015. The cost of luxury: Cambodia’s illegal trade in precious wood with China. London: Global Witness. https://www.globalwitness.org/campaigns/forests/cost-of-luxury/

Goodfellow. T., & Huang, Z. (2021). Contingent infrastructure and the dilution of ‘Chineseness’: Reframing roads and rail in Kampala and Addis Ababa. Environment and Planning A, 53(4), 655-674.

Harvey, P. (2018). Infrastructures in and out of time: The promise of roads in contemporary Peru. In N. Anand, A. Gupta & H. Appel (Eds.), The promise of infrastructure (pp. 80–101). Duke University Press.

Harvey, P., Jensen, C.B., & Morita. A. (2017). Introduction: Infrastructural complications. In P. Harvey, C.B. Jensen, & A. Morita (Eds.), Infrastructures and social complexity: A companion (pp. 1–22). Routledge.

Hensengerth, O. (2015). Global norms in domestic politics: Environmental norm contestation in Cambodia's hydropower sector. The Pacific Review, 28(4), 505–528.

Hensengerth, O. (2017). Water governance in the Mekong Basin: Scalar trade-offs, transnational norms, and Chinese hydropower investment. In P. Nyíri & D. Tan (Eds.), Chinese encounters in Southeast Asia: How people, money, and ideas from China are changing a region (pp. 174-191). University of Washington Press.

Harris, L. M. (2012). State as socionatural effect: Variable and emergent geographies of the state in Southeastern Turkey. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 32(1), 25–39.

Hirsch, P. (2016). The shifting regional geopolitics of Mekong dams. Political Geography, 51, 63-74.

Howe, C., Lockrem, J., Appel, H., Hackett, E., Boyer, D., Hall, R., Schneider-Mayerson, M., Pope, A., Gupta, A., Rodwell, E., & Ballestero, A. (2016). Paradoxical infrastructures. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 41(3), 547–565.

Hughes, C., & Un, K. (2011). Cambodia’s economic transformation: Historical and theoretical frameworks. In C. Hughes & K. Un (Eds.), Cambodia’s economic transformation (pp. 1–26). Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Press.

Human Rights Watch. (2021). Underwater: Human rights impact of a China Belt and Road project in Cambodia. https://www.hrw.org/report/2021/08/10/underwater/human-rights-impacts-china-belt-and-road-project-cambodia

International Hydropower Association. (2019). Hydropower status report. https://www.hydropower.org/publications/status2019

International Rivers. (2015). Benchmarking the policies and practices of international hydropower companies – Part B: Benchmarking findings summary by company. https://www.internationalrivers.org/sites/default/files/attached-files/benchmarking_report_english_part_b.pdf

Jessop, B., Brenner, N., & Jones, M. (2008). Theorizing sociospatial relations. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 26(3), 389–401.

Johns, F. (2015). On failing forward: Neoliberal legality in the Mekong River Basin. Cornell Inter-national Law Journal, 48(2), 347–383.

Kaika, M. (2006). Dams as symbols of modernization: The urbanization of nature between geographical imagination and materiality. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 96(2), 276–301.

Khagram, S. (2004). Dams and development: Transnational struggles for water and power. Cornell University Press.

Kirchherr, J., Matthews, N., Charles, K.J., & Walton, M.J. (2017). “Learning it the hard way”: Social safeguards norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia. Energy Policy, 102, 529–539.

Klinger, J. M., & Muldavin, J.S.S. (2019). New geographies of development: Grounding China’s global integration. Territory, Politics, Governance, 7(1), 1–21.

Kong, B. (2021). Domestic push meets foreign pull: The political economy of Chinese development finance for hydropower worldwide. GCI Working Paper, Boston University’s Global Development Policy Center. https://www.bu.edu/gdp/files/2021/07/GCI_WP_017_FIN.pdf

Krause, F., & Harris, M. (Eds.). (2021). Delta Life: Exploring dynamic environments where rivers meet the sea. Berghahn Books.

Käkönen, M. (2020). Fixing the fluid: Making resources and ordering hydrosocial relations in the Mekong Region. PhD dissertation, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Helsinki.

Käkönen, M., & Thuon, T. (2019). Overlapping zones of exclusion: Carbon markets, corporate hydropower enclaves and timber extraction in Cambodia. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 46(6), 1192–1218.

Käkönen, M., & Nygren, A. (2023). Resurgent dams: shifting power formations, persistent harms, and obscured responsibilities. Globalizations, 20(6), 866-886.

Lamb, V. (2014). Making governance ‘good’: The production of scale in the environmental impact assessment and governance of the Salween River. Conservation & Society, 12(4), 386–397.

Laungaramsri, P. (2019). China in Laos: Enclave spaces and the transformation of borders in the Mekong Region. Australian Journal of Anthropology, 30, 195–211.

Le Billon, P. (2002). Logging in muddy waters: The politics of forest exploitation in Cambodia. Critical Asian Studies, 34(4), 563–586.

Lee, C.K. (2014). The specter of global China. New Left Review, 89, 29-65.

Ley, L., & Krause, F. (2019). Ethnographic conversations with Wittfogel’s ghost: An introduction. Environment and Planning C, 37(7), 1151–1160.

Linton, J., & Budds, J. (2014). The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational-dialectical approach to water. Geoforum, 57, 170–180.

Loughlin, N., & Grimsditch, M. (2021). How local political economy dynamics are shaping the Belt and Road Initiative. Third World Quarterly, 42(10), 2334-2352.

Lyttleton, C., & P. Nyíri (2011). Dams, casinos and concessions: Chinese megaprojects in Laos and Cambodia. In S.D. Brunn (Ed.), Engineering Earth (pp. 1243–1265). Springer.

Mahanty, S. (2021). Lower Sesan 2 hydropower dam. The People’s Map of Global China. https://thepeoplesmap.net/project/lower-sesan-2-dam

Mahanty, S., Chann, S., & Suong, S. (2023). The emotional life of rupture at Cambodia’s Lower Sesan 2 hydropower dam. Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space. https://doi.org/10.1177/25148486231162087

Matthews, N., & Motta, S. (2015). Chinese state-owned enterprise investment in Mekong hydropower: Political and economic drivers and their implications across the water, energy, food nexus. Water, 7(11), 6269–6284.

McCully, P., (2001). Silenced rivers: The ecology and politics of large dams. St. Martin’s Press.

Merme, V., Ahlers, R., & Gupta, J. (2014). Private equity, public affair: Hydropower financing in the Mekong Basin. Global Environmental Change, 24, 20–29.

Middleton, C. (2008). Cambodia’s hydropower development and China’s involvement. International Rivers and Rivers Coalition in Cambodia. https://understandchinaenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/IR-Cambodia-hydropower-and-Chinese-investors.pdf

Middleton, C. (2022). The political ecology of large hydropower dams in the Mekong Basin: A comprehensive review. Water Alternatives, 15(2), 251–289.

Middleton, C., Matthews, N., & Mirumachi, N. (2015). Whose risky business? Public-Private Partnerships, Build-Operate-Transfer and large hydropower dams in the Mekong Region. In N. Matthews & K. Geheb (Eds.), Hydropower development in the Mekong Region: Political, socio-economic and environmental perspectives (pp. 224–237). Routledge.

Milne, S. (2015). Cambodia’s unofficial regime of extraction: Illicit logging in the shadow of transnational governance and investment. Critical Asian Studies, 47(2), 200–228.

Milne, S. (2021). Resist or comply?: Experiences of violence around dams in Cambodia. In M. Menton & P. Le Billon (Eds.), Environmental Defenders (pp. 167–179). Routledge.

Mitchell, T. (2002). Rule of experts: Egypt, techno-politics, modernity. University of California Press.

Mohan, G., & Tan-Mullins, M. (2019). The geopolitics of South–South infrastructure development: Chinese-financed energy projects in the global South. Urban Studies, 56(7), 1368–1385.

Mohan, G. (2020). Below the belt? Territory and development in China’s international rise. Development and Change, 52(1), 54–75.

Molle, F., Mollinga, P. P., & Wester, P. (2009). Hydraulic bureaucracies and the hydraulic mission: Flows of water, flows of power. Water Alternatives, 2(3), 328–349.

Motta, S., & Matthews, N. (2018). Rewards and risks of Chinese hydropower in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). In G. Siciliano & F. Urban (Eds.), Chinese hydropower development in Africa and Asia: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable global dam-building (pp. 14–34). Routledge.

MRFI [Mekong Region Futures Institute], (2021). Dataset on the Dams of the Greater Mekong, Bangkok: Mekong Region Futures Institute.

Nüsser, M., & Baghel, R. (2017). The emergence of technological hydroscapes in the anthropocene: Socio-hydrology and development paradigms of large dams. In B. Warf (Ed.), Handbook on geographies of technology (pp. 287–301). Edward Elgar.

Nyíri, P. (2012). Enclaves of improvement: Sovereignty and developmentalism in the special zones of the China-Lao borderlands. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 54(3), 533–562.

Nyíri, P. (2013). Chinese investors, labour discipline and developmental cosmopolitanism. Development and Change, 44, 1387–1405.

Nyíri, P. (2017). Investors, managers, brokers, and culture workers: How migrants from China are changing the meaning of Chineseness in Cambodia. In P. Nyíri & D. Tan (Eds.), Chinese encounters in Southeast Asia: How people, money, and ideas from China are changing a region (pp. 25–42). University of Washington Press.

Nyíri, P., & D. Tan (2017). Introduction: China’s “rise” in Southeast Asia from a bottom-up perspective. In P. Nyíri & D. Tan (Eds.), Chinese encounters in Southeast Asia: How people, money, and ideas from China are changing a region (pp. 3–22). University of Washington Press.

Open Development Cambodia [ODC] (2019). Hydropower dams. https://opendevelopmentcambodia.net/topics/hydropower-dams

Oakes, T. (2019). China made: Infrastructural thinking in a Chinese register. Made in China Journal, 4(2), 66–71. Oakes, T. (2021). The Belt and Road as method: Geopolitics, technopolitics and power through an infrastructure lens. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 62(3), 281–285.

Ong, A. (2006). Neoliberalism as exception: Mutations on citizenship and sovereignty. Duke University Press.

Opitz, S., & Tellmann, U. (2012). Global territories: Zones of economic and legal dis/connectivity. Distinktion: Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory, 13(3), 261–282.

O’Neill, D. (2018). Dividing ASEAN and conquering the South China Sea: China’s financial power projection. Hong Kong University Press.

Ponce, F. S. (2022). ‘Eating with the people’: How a Chinese hydropower project changed food experiences in a Lao community. Social Anthropology/Anthropologie sociale, 30(1), 1-23.

Royal Government of Cambodia [RGC] (2010). National Strategic Development Plan Update 2009–2013. Phnom Penh: Royal Government of Cambodia.

Raymond, G. (2021). From neoliberalism to geoeconomics: The Greater Mekong Subregion and the archaeology of the Belt and Road Initiative in mainland Southeast Asia. Made in China Journal, 6(2), 152-157.

Richter, B. D., Postel, S., Revenga, C., Scudder, T., Lehner, B., Churchill, A., & Chow, M. (2010). Lost in development’s shadow: The downstream human consequences of dams. Water Alternatives, 3(2), 14–42.

Rippa, A. (2019). Zomia 2.0: Branding remoteness and neoliberal connectivity in the Golden Triangle Special Economic Zone, Laos. Social Anthropology/Anthropologie sociale, 27(2), 253–269.

Rodgers, D., & O’Neill, B. (2012). Infrastructural violence: Introduction to the special issue. Ethnography, 13(4), 401–412.

Rogelja, I. (2020). Concrete and coal: China's infrastructural assemblages in the Balkans. Political Geography, 81, 102220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2020.102220

Rowedder, S. (2020). Railroading land-linked Laos: China’s regional profits, Laos’ domestic costs? Eurasian Geography and Economics, 61(2), 152–161.

Ruckert, A., Macdonald, L., & Proulx, K. (2017). Postneoliberalism in Latin America: A conceptual review. Third World Quarterly, 38(7), 1583-1602.

Räsänen, T., Varis, O., Scherer, L., & Kummu, M. (2018). Greenhouse gas emissions of hydropower in the Mekong River Basin. Environmental Research Letters, 13(3), 034030. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aaa817

Scudder, T. (2019). Large dams: Long term impacts on riverine communities and free flowing rivers. Springer Nature.

Sato, J., Shiga, H., Kobayashi, T., & Kondoh, H. (2011). “Emerging donors” from a recipient perspective: An institutional analysis of foreign aid in Cambodia. World Development, 39(12), 2091-2104.

Sassen, S. 2006. Territory, authority, rights: From medieval to global assemblages. Princeton University Press.

Scott, J. (1998). Seeing like a state: How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. Yale University Press.

Siciliano, G., Del Bene, D., Scheidel, A., Liu, J., & Urban, F. (2019). Environmental justice and Chinese dam-building in the global South. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 37, 20–27.

Singh, S. (2018). Nam Theun 2 and the transformation of institutions and public debate in Laos. In B. Shoemaker & W. Robichaud (Eds.), Dead in the water: Global lessons from the World Bank’s model hydro-power project in Laos (pp. 217–241). Wisconsin University Press.

Sneddon, C. (2015). Concrete revolution: Large dams, cold war geopolitics, and the US bureau of reclamation. University of Chicago Press.

Suhardiman, D., & Geheb, K. (2022). Participation and politics in transboundary hydropower development: The case of the Pak Beng dam in Laos. Environmental Policy and Governance, 32(4), 320–330.

Sullivan, M. (2015). Contested development and environment: Chinese-backed hydropower and infrastructure projects in Cambodia. In S. Milne & S. Mahanty (Eds.), Conservation and Development in Cambodia: Exploring the Frontiers of Change in Nature, State and Society (pp. 120–139). Earthscan.

Tan, D. (2015). Chinese engagement in Laos: Past, present, and uncertain future. ISEAS Publishing.

Tan, D. (2017). Chinese enclaves in the Golden Triangle borderlands: An alternative account of state formation in Laos. In P. Nyíri & D. Tan (Eds.), Chinese encounters in Southeast Asia: How people, money, and ideas from China are changing a region (pp. 136–152). University of Washington Press.

Urban, F., Siciliano, G., & Nordensvard, J. (2018). China’s dam builders: Their role in transboundary river management in South-East Asia. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 34(5), 747–770.

Yamada, T. S. (2019). Cambodia’s changing landscape: Rhetoric and reality. In A. Cheng-Hin Lim & F. Cibulka (Eds.), China and Southeast Asia in the Xi Jinping era (pp. 65–85). Lexington Books.

Yeh, E., & Wharton, E. (2016). Going west and going out: Discourses, migrants, and models in Chinese development. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 57(3), 286–315.

Young, S. (2020). China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Patron-client and capture in Cambodia. The Chinese Journal of Comparative Law. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3657230

Verver, M. (2019). ”Old” and ”new” Chinese business in Cambodia’s capital. Trends in Southeast Asia, No. 17. ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute.

Verver, M., & Dahles, H. (2015). The institutionalisation of Oknha: Cambodian entrepreneurship at the interface of business and politics. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 45(1), 48–70.

Whitington, J. (2019). Anthropogenic rivers: The production of uncertainty in Lao hydropower. Cornell University Press.

Woods, K. (2017). “China in Burma”: A multi-scalar political economy analysis. In P. Nyíri & D. Tan (Eds.), Chinese encounters in Southeast Asia: How people, money, and ideas from China are changing a region (pp. 227-255). University of Washington Press.

Work, C., Theilade, I., & Thuon, T. (2022). Under the canopy of development aid: Illegal logging and the shadow state. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 50(7), 2560-2591.

Wyrwoll, P., & Grafton, Q. (2021). Reforming for resilience: Delivering ‘multipurpose hydropower’ under water and energy risks. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 38(6), 1032-1061.

Zarfl, C., Lumsdon, A.E., Berlekamp, J., Tydecks, L., & Klement, T. (2015). A global boom in hydropower dam construction. Aquatic Sciences, 77, 161–170.

Ziv, G., Baran, E., Nam, S., Rodríguez-Iturbe, I., & Levin, S. (2012). Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(15), 5609–5614.