Typhoons, Climate Change, and Climate Injustice in the Philippines


  • William N. Holden University of Calgary




Climate Change, Climate Injustice, Philippines, Political Ecology, Typhoons


This article discusses how climate change causes an intensification of Western North Pacific typhoons and how the effects of such amplified typhoons upon the Philippines exemplify the concept of climate injustice. Using a political ecology approach, the article begins with an examination of the concepts of climate change, climate injustice, background injustice, and compound injustice. This is followed by an examination of the causes of typhoons, the vulnerability of the Philippines to typhoons, and how climate change may generate stronger typhoons. These stronger typhoons that may be produced by climate change, and the risks that they pose to the Philippines, are an example of climate injustice, while the legacy of colonial exploitation in the Philippines is an example of background injustice. The struggles faced by the Philippines in coping with climate change augmented typhoons are an example of compound injustice. The article concludes with a discussion of the reluctance of developed countries, such as Australia, Canada, and the United States, to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions notwithstanding the consequences these emissions have on countries such as the Philippines.

Author Biography

William N. Holden, University of Calgary

William Holden is an Associate Professor in the Department of Geography/Program of Environmental Science at the University of Calgary, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. His research interests include: the Philippines, the meteorological hazards of anthropogenic climate change, the efficacy of mining as a development strategy, insurgency/counterinsurgency warfare, state terrorism, and the roles played by liberation theology and Maoism as counter hegemonic discourses in the 21st century. Contact: wnholden@ucalgary.ca




How to Cite

Holden, W. N. (2018). Typhoons, Climate Change, and Climate Injustice in the Philippines. Advances in Southeast Asian Studies, 11(1), 117–139. https://doi.org/10.14764/10.ASEAS-2018.1-7



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