Indigenous Peoples, the State, and the Economy in Indonesia
National Debates and Local Processes of Recognition
Some communities in Indonesia’s margins have adopted indigenous identities to overcome stigmatization as 'backward'. Following recent government efforts to develop Indonesia’s peripheral areas, these communities can also identify as entrepreneurs because they can now apply for land titles – a change that government officials hope will boost local economies. The question of who is 'indigenous' has thus become an area of political controversy that the state must address. Through analysis of legal documents and political processes, this paper focuses on state-indigenous relations in Indonesia, with an emphasis on economic processes. Participatory observations and interviews have been carried out to gain better insights into ongoing recognition of indigenous communities. Preliminary findings suggest that indigenous activists are disappointed, as the government is not pushing forward crucial legislation, and recognition of land titles is slow. Therefore, activists have instead turned their attention to means of rec- ognition in the regencies. The example of Enrekang, South Sulawesi, provides insights into these developments and into the current relations between the state and indigenous peoples.
Acciaioli, G. (2007). From customary law to indigenous sovereignty: Reconceptualizing masyarakat adat in contemporary Indonesia. In J. Davidson & D. Henley (Eds.), The revival of tradition in Indonesian politics. The deployment of adat from colonialism to indigenism (pp. 295-318). London: Routledge.
Affif, S. (2016). REDD, land management and the politics of forest and land tenure reform with special reference to the case of Central Kalimantan. In J. McCarthy & K. Robinson (Eds.), Land and development in Indonesia. Searching for the people’s sovereignty (pp. 113-140). Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.
Bupati Enrekang (2016). Peraturan Daerah Kabupaten Enrekang Nomor 1 Tahun 2016 Tentang Pedoman Pengakuan Dan Perlindungan Terhadap Masyarakat Hukum Adat Di Kabupaten Enrekang. Enrekang.
Davidson, J., & Henley, D. (Eds.). (2007). The revival of tradition in Indonesian politics. The deployment of adat from colonialism to indigenism. London: Routledge.
Erni, C. (2008). Country profile: Indonesia. In C. Erni (Ed.), The concept of indigenous people in Asia. A resource book (pp. 377-382). Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA)/ Asia Indigenous Peoples Pact Foundation.
Gokkon, B. (2017, November 15). Indonesian president recognizes land rights of nine more indigenous groups. Mongabay. Retrieved from https://news.mongabay.com/2017/11/indonesian-president-recognizes-land-rights-of-nine-more-indigenous-groups/
Hauser-Schäublin, B. (Ed.). (2013). Adat and indigeneity in Indonesia. Cultural entitlements between heteronomy and self-ascription. Göttingen: Universitätsverlag Göttingen.
Li, T. M. (2000). Articulating indigenous identity in Indonesia: Resource politics and the tribal slot. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 42(1), 149-179.
Nababan, A. (2015, April 17). Indigenous peoples and the World Economic Forum. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/04/17/indigenous-peoples-and-world-economic-forum.html
Official NET News. (2019, February 17). Prabowo: Kalau sertifikat tanah dibagi-bagi, bagaimana masa depan anak cucu kita? [online video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OL1ScnkjWXU
Pichler, M. (2014). Umkämpfte Natur. Politische Ökologie der Palmöl- und Agrartreibstoffproduktion in Südostasien. Münster: Westfälisches Dampfboot.
Presiden Republik Indonesia. (2014). Undang-Undang Nomor 6 Tahun 2014 Tentang Desa. Jakarta. Presiden Republik Indonesia (2014). Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 6 Tahun 2014 Tentang Desa. Jakarta.
Satriastani, F. (2017, February 8). Indonesian government moves further from community forestry target. Mongabay. Retrieved from: https://news.mongabay.com/2017/02/indonesian-government-moves- farther-from-communit-forestry-target/
Siringoringo, J. (2018, December 19). Jokowi-JK gagal penuhi janjinya kepada Masyarakat Adat! Aliansi Masyaraat Adat Nusantara. Retrieved from http://www.aman.or.id/2018/12/jokowi-jk-gagal-penuhi- janjinya-kepada-masyarakat-adat/
Warburton, E. (2016). Jokowi and the new developmentalism. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 52(3), 297-320.
Copyright (c) 2020 Society for South-East Asian Studies (SEAS)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Articles published before December 2019 are licensed under the following Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported. Articles published after that date are licensed under the following Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International.