Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals in Southeast Asia
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a set of 17 goals adopted in 2015, are aimed at reconciling economic, social, and ecological progress at a global level – ensuring a sustainable future for developed and developing countries alike. Tourism in Southeast Asia is particularly thought to make an important contribution – given its substantial economic role – to the SDGs. While the United Nations initially only linked three SDGs to tourism, it bears often underused potential to contribute to the entire set of goals. Yet, the relationship between tourism and sustainable development is regarded as ambiguous – an industry strongly characterized by an overdependence on international tourists and foreign investment, showing a patchy track record of negative impacts and conflicts. In addition, in times of COVID-19, tourism has become a dormant industry, leaving behind substantial economic gaps, particularly in Southeast Asia. With regards to the SDGs, little research exists to date that investigates whether and how tourism can contribute to reaching the goals’ targets to achieve a more sustainable development. This article thus outlines the current situation for tourism for development in Southeast Asia, and discusses the links between tourism and the SDGs, particularly at a time when the region – and theindustry at large – have been strongly impacted.
Agboeze, M. U., & Nwankwo, E. A. (2018). Actualizing Sustainable Development Goal‐11 in rural Nigeria: The role of adult literacy education and tourism development. Business Strategy & Development, 1(3), 180-188.
Alarcón, D. M., & Cole, S. (2019). No sustainability for tourism without gender equality. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 903-919.
Aquino, R. S. (2020). Book review: Dolezal, C., Trupp, A., & Bui, H. T. (Eds.). (2020). Tourism and development in Southeast Asia. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 13(1), 161-164.
Ateljevic, I. (2020). Transforming the (tourism) world for good and (re)generating the potential ‘new normal’. Tourism Geographies, Online first: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1759134
Attaran, A. (2006). An immeasurable crisis? A criticism of the Millennium Development Goals and why they cannot be measured. PLoS medicine, 2(10), e224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030224
Bianchi, R., & Stephenson, M. (2014). Tourism and citizenship: Rights, freedoms and responsibilities in the global order. London: Routledge.
Boluk, K. A., Cavaliere, C. T., & Duffy, L. N. (2019). A pedagogical framework for the development of the critical tourism citizen. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 865-881.
Boluk, K. A., Cavaliere, C. T., & Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2019). A critical framework for interrogating the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 2030 Agenda in tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tou- rism, 27(7), 847-864.
Bui, H. T., & Trupp, A. (2020). Asian tourism in Europe: Consumption, distinction, mobility, and diversity. Tourism Recreation Research, 45(1), 4-18.
Chan, Y. (2020). The Golden Mile Complex: The idea of Little Thailand in Singapore. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 13(1), 103-121.
Cheer, J. M. (2020). Human flourishing, tourism transformation and COVID-19: A conceptual touchstone. Tourism Geographies, Online first: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1765016
Clemens, M., & Moss, T. (2005). CGD brief: What’s wrong with the Millennium Development Goals? Washington: Center for Global Development.
Cohen, E. (2016). Ethnic tourism in mainland Southeast Asia: The state of the art. Tourism Recreation Research, 41(3), 232-245.
Cornwall, A., & Eade, D. (Eds.). (2010). Deconstructing development discourse: Buzzwords and fuzzwords. Warwickshire: Practical Action Publishing & Oxfam.
Dahles, H., Prabawa, T. S., & Koning, J. (2020). Local tourism businesses in Indonesia: A pathway to crisis- resilient development? Austrian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 13(1), 17-33.
Death, C., & Gabay, C. (2015). Doing biopolitics differently? Radical potential in the post-2015 MDG and SDG debates. Globalizations, 12(4), 597–612.
Dolezal, C., & Burns, P. (2014). ABCD to CBT: Asset-based community development's potential for community-based tourism. Development in Practice, 25(1), 133-142.
Dolezal, C., & Miezelyte, D. (2020). Volunteer tourists and the SDGs in Bali: Agents of development or redundant holiday-makers? Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 13(1), 35-55.
Dolezal, C., & Lapointe, D. (2020). How a group of homeless and vulnerably housed tour guides reinvented themselves during the pandemic. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/how- a-group-of-homeless-and-vulnerably-housed-tour-guides-reinvented-themselves-during-the-pande- mic-139150
Dolezal, C., & Trupp, A. (2015). Tourism and development in Southeast Asia. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies 8(2), 117-124.
Dolezal, C., Trupp, A., & Bui, H. T. (Eds.). (2020a). Tourism and development in Southeast Asia. Abingdon: Routledge.
Dolezal, C., Trupp, A., & Bui, H. T. (2020b). Tourism and development in Southeast Asia: Concluding remarks and future outlook. In C. Dolezal, A. Trupp, & H. T. Bui (Eds.), Tourism and development in Southeast Asia (pp. 214-218). London: Routledge.
Duile, T. (2020). Indigenous peoples, the state, and the economy in Indonesia: National debates and local processes of recognition. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 13(1), 155-160.
Development of UNESCO Natural and Cultural Assets. (2020). COVID-19: Challenges and opportunities for the tourism sector and how DUNC is coping with the current situation. Retrieved from https:// www.dunc-heritage.eu/covid-19-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-tourism-sector-and-how- dunc-is-coping-with-the-current-situation/
Eisenmenger, N., Pichler, M., Krenmayr, N., Noll, D., Plank, B., Schalmann, E., ... & Gingrich, S. (2020). The Sustainable Development Goals prioritize economic growth over sustainable resource use: A critical reflection on the SDGs from a socio-ecological perspective. Sustainability Science, 15, 1101-1110.
Fan, K. H. F., Chang, T. C., & Ng, S. L. (2020). The Batek's dilemma on indigenous tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 83, 102948, Online first: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102948
Gössling, S., & Hall, C.M. (2019). Sharing versus collaborative economy: How to align ICT developments and the SDGs in tourism? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(1), 74-96.
Guild, J. (2020). Have reports of Bali’s death been greatly exaggerated? Retrieved from https://www. newmandala.org/have-reports-of-balis-death-been-greatly-exaggerated/
Hajer, M., Nilsson, M., Raworth, K., Bakker, P., Berkhout, F., De Boer, Y., ... & Kok, M. (2015). Beyond cockpit-ism: Four insights to enhance the transformative potential of the Sustainable Development Goals. Sustainability, 7(2), 1651-1660.
Hall, C. M. (2019). Constructing sustainable tourism development: The 2030 agenda and the managerial ecology of sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 1044-1060.
Hampton, M., & Clifton, J. (2017). Tourism in Indonesia. In C. M. Hall & S. Page (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of tourism in Asia (pp. 181-190). Abingdon: Routledge.
Haywood, L. K., Funke, N., Audouin, M., Musvoto, C., & Nahman, A. (2019). The Sustainable Development Goals in South Africa: Investigating the need for multi-stakeholder partnerships. Development Southern Africa, 36(5), 555-569.
Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2020). Socialising tourism for social and ecological justice after COVID-19. Tourism Geographies, Online first: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1757748
Higgins-Desbiolles, F., & Wijesinghe, G. (2019). The critical capacities of restaurants as facilitators for transformations to sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 1080-1105.
Higham, J., & Miller, G. (2018). Transforming societies and transforming tourism: Sustainable tourism in times of change. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(1), 1-8.
Hughes, E., & Scheyvens, R. (2016). Corporate social responsibility in tourism post-2015: A Development First approach. Tourism Geographies, 18(5), 469-482.
Husa, L. C. (2020). The ‘souvenirization'and ‘touristification' of material culture in Thailand – Mutual const- ructions of ‘otherness’ in the tourism and souvenir industries. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 15(3), 279-293.
IMF. (2018). ASEAN progress towards sustainable development goals and the role of the IMF. Retrieved from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/28341101118aseanprogresstowadssustain abledevelopmentgoals.pdf
Khoo-Lattimore, C., Yang, E. C. L., & Je, J. S. (2019). Assessing gender representation in knowledge pro- duction: A critical analysis of UNWTO’s planned events. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 920-938.
Koh, E., & Fakfare, P. (2019). Overcoming “over-tourism”: The closure of Maya Bay. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 6(2), 279-296.
Kraas, F., Zin Nwe Myint, & Häusler, N. (2020). Tourism development in Myanmar: Dynamics, policies, and challenges. In C. Dolezal, A. Trupp, & H. T. Bui (Eds.), Tourism and development in Southeast Asia (pp. 163-183). Abingdon: Routledge.
Lapointe, D. (2020). Reconnecting tourism after COVID-19: The paradox of alterity in tourism areas. Tourism Geographies, Online first: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1762115
Lasso, A., & Dahles, H. (2020). Fishermen into tour operators. Tourism development in Labuan Bajo, Indonesia. In C. Dolezal, A. Trupp, & H. T. Bui (Eds.), Tourism and development in Southeast Asia (pp. 3–22). Abingdon: Routledge.
Liverman, D. M. (2018). Geographic perspectives on development goals: Constructive engagements and critical perspectives on the MDGs and the SDGs. Dialogues in Human Geography, 8(2), 168-185.
Lu, J. (2019). Asian Countries are off track to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. UN Dispatch. Retrieved from https://www.undispatch.com/asia-sdgs/
Lyon, A., & Hunter-Jones, P. (2019). Critical discourse analysis and the questioning of dominant, hegemonic discourses of sustainable tourism in the Waterberg Biosphere Reserve, South Africa. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 974-991.
Minh, N. (2020, May 12). “Vietnamese People Travel in Vietnam” program kicks off. The Hanoitimes. Retrie- ved from http://hanoitimes.vn/vietnamese-people-travel-in-vietnam-program-kicks-off-312047.html
Monshausen, A., & Rutherford, A. (2017). Goal 17: Partnerships for the goals. Retrieved from http://www. transformingtourism.org/fileadmin/baukaesten/sdg/downloads/Kapitel/Goal_17.pdf
Müller, S., Huck, L., & Markova, J. (2020). Sustainable community-based tourism in Cambodia and tourists’ willingness to pay. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 13(1), 81-101.
Mugagga, F., & Nabaasa, B. B. (2016). The centrality of water resources to the realization of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): A review of potentials and constraints on the African continent. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 4, 215-223.
“New AirAsia Unlimited Pass”. (2020). New AirAsia Unlimited Pass set to accelerate domestic tourism recovery. Newsroom AirAsia. Retrieved from https://newsroom.airasia.com/news/2020/6/10/new- airasia-unlimited-pass-set-to-accelerate-domestic-tourism-recovery
Niewiadomski, P. (2020). COVID-19: From temporary de-globalisation to a rediscovery of tourism? Tourism Geographies, Online first: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1757749
Nomnian, S., Trupp, A., Niyomthong, W., Tangcharoensathaporn, P., & Charoenkongka, A. (2020). Language and community-based tourism: Use, needs, dependency, and limitations. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 13(1), 57-79.
Ocha, W. (2020). Gold rush abroad: The trajectory of Singapore-based Thai transsexual (male to female) sex workers in global sex tourism. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 13(1), 123-141.
Robinson, R. N., Martins, A., Solnet, D., & Baum, T. (2019). Sustaining precarity: Critically examining tourism and employment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 1008-1025.
Sagar, M. (2020, April 27). Singapore Tourism Board launches digital initiatives to support businesses during COVID-19 outbreak. OpenGovAsia. Retrieved from https://www.opengovasia.com/singapore- tourism-board-launches-digital-initiatives-to-support-businesses-during-covid-19-outbreak/
Scheyvens, R., & Hughes, E. (2019). Can tourism help to “end poverty in all its forms everywhere”? The challenge of tourism addressing SDG1. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 1061-1079.
Scheyvens, R., & Laeis, G. (2019). Linkages between tourist resorts, local food production and the sustainable development goals. Tourism Geographies, Online first: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2019.1674369
Scott, P. (2020, May 10). Vietnam tourism hotspot reopens, but draws locals not overseas visitors amid plunge in international travel. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/ lifestyle/travel-leisure/article/3083320/how-tourist-hotspot-vietnam-adjusting-attract-locals
Siakwah, P., Musavengane, R., & Leonard, L. (2019). Tourism governance and attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals in Africa. Tourism Planning & Development, Online first: https://doi.org/10.1080/2 1568316.2019.1600160
Spencer, A. J. & McBean, L. M. (2020). Alignment of tourism investment to the SDGs in Jamaica: An explo- ratory study. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 12(3), 261-274.
Stange, G., Kourek, M., Sakdapolrak, P., & Sasiwongsaroj, K. (2019). Forced migration in Southeast Asia. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 12(2), 249-265.
Stephenson, M. L., & Dobson, G. J. (2020). Deciphering the development of smart and sustainable tourism cities in Southeast Asia: A call for research. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 13(1), 143-153.
Stumpf, T. S., & Cheshire, C. L. (2019). The land has voice: Understanding the land tenure – Sustainable tourism development nexus in Micronesia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 957-973.
Subhanij, T., & Hasannudin, Z. (2020). Financing SDGs under a new normal: Challenges and response to COVID-19 pandemic. Retrieved from https://www.unescap.org/blog/financing-sdgs-covid-19#
Taylor, R. S. (2020). We will not go back to normal. Retrieved from https://www.sonyareneetaylor.com
Tham, A., Ruhanen, L., & Raciti, M. (2020). Tourism with and by Indigenous and ethnic communities in the Asia Pacific region: A bricolage of people, places and partnerships. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 15(3), 243-248.
Tomassini, L., & Cavagnaro, E. (2020). The novel spaces and powergeometries in tourism and hospitality after 2020 will belong to the ‘local’. Tourism Geographies, Online first: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616 688.2020.1757747
Trupp, A. (2014). Ethnic tourism in Northern Thailand: Viewpoints of the Akha and the Karen. In K. Husa, A. Trupp, & H. Wohlschlägl (Eds.), Southeast Asian mobility transitions. Issues and trends in tourism and migration (pp. 346–376). Vienna: Department of Geography and Regional research, University of Vienna.
Trupp, A., Dolezal, C., & Bui, H. T. (2020). Mapping tourism, sustainability, and development in Southeast Asia. In C. Dolezal, A. Trupp, & H. T. Bui (Eds.), Tourism and development in Southeast Asia (pp. 3–22). Abingdon: Routledge.
UN. (2020a). Amid the coronavirus pandemic, the SDGs are even more relevant today than ever before. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2020/04/coronavirus-sdgs-more- relevant-than-ever-before/
UN. (2020b). Shared responsibility, global solidarity: Responding to the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19. Retrieved from https://unsdg.un.org/sites/default/files/2020-03/SG-Report-Socio-Economic- Impact-of-Covid19.pdf
UN. (2019). Asia and the Pacific SDG progress report 2019. Bangkok: United Nations. Retrieved from https:// www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/publication/ESCAP_Asia_and_the_Pacific_SDG_Progress_ Report_2019.pdf
UN. (n.d.). Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved fromhttps://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300 UNWTO. (2020a). COVID-19 related travel restrictions: A global review for tourism. Madrid: UNWTO. UNWTO. (2020b). UNWTO World tourism barometer May 2020: Special focus on the impact of COVID-19. Madrid: UNWTO.
UNWTO. (2020c). “Sustainability as the new normal”: A vision for the future of tourism. Retrieved from https://www.unwto.org/covid-19-oneplanet-responsible-recovery
UNWTO. (2019). International tourism highlights 2019. Retrieved from https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/ pdf/10.18111/9789284421152
UNWTO. (2017). Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals – Journey to 2030. Retrieved from http:// www.e-unwto.org/doi/book/10.18111/9789284419401
UNWTO, & UNDP. (2017). Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals - Journey to 2030. Madrid: UNWTO.
Wen, J., Kozak, M., Yang, S., & Liu, S. (2020). COVID-19: Potential effects on Chinese citizens’ lifestyle and travel. Tourism Review, Advance online publication. Retrieved from https://www.emerald.com/insight/ content/doi/10.1108/TR-03-2020-0110/full/pdf?title=covid-19-potential-effects-on-chinese-citizens- lifestyle-and-travel
Winchenbach, A., Hanna, P., & Miller, G. (2019). Rethinking decent work: The value of dignity in tourism employment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 1026-1043.
Winter, T. (2008). Post-conflict heritage and tourism in Cambodia: The burden of Angkor. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 14(6), 524–539.
WTTC. (2019). Travel & tourism economic impact 2019: Southeast Asia. London: World Travel and Tourism Council.
Copyright (c) 2020 Society for South-East Asian Studies (SEAS)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Articles published before December 2019 are licensed under the following Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported. Articles published after that date are licensed under the following Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International.